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Fundamental concepts used in CPM network

·Some of the fundamental concepts used in CPM network are as follows: oNetwork – it is a diagrammatic representation of a project’s different activities and their logical interrelationships between the various activities. Arrows and circles or squares are used in the diagram. They represent activities and events respectively. oActivity – activity is task or activity to be performed. It takes time for completion. Activities are represented by arrows which are usually drawn from left to right. The length and shape of the arrow have no meaning. For example: excavate foundation, lay brick work, backfill trench, fix shuttering etc. For example: oEvent -  it represents a circle (node). Event represents starts or completion of a task. It consumes no time or resources. Events or nodes of a network are numbered. For example: excavation completed, brick work laid, shuttering fixed, etc. There are two types of events: §Tail event – it is the beginning of an activity. §Head event – it is the completio…
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PROJECT SCHEDULING WITH LIMITED RESOURCES

Scheduling Scheduling is the process of fitting the work plan to a time frame indicating the start and completion of each activity. It also shows sequential relationships among various activities.Schedules are also prepared for construction resources such as labor, materials, machinery and money required at various stages of the work.The actual progress of each activity can be monitored with reference to the planned program. If there are any delays, suitable corrective action can be taken to speed up the work.The construction schedule is a tool that a contractor uses to manage time and execute activities in a proper sequence. To prepare a construction schedule, the project is divided into different activities or operations. The sequence of operations can be decided after knowing their inter relationship as per the construction method adopted. The construction schedule serves the following purposes:Making available a time table show…

Revit Keyboard Shortcuts

Annotate DI ALIGNED DIMENSION / Creates an aligned dimension.DLDETAIL LINE / Creates view-specific lines.ELSPOT ELEVATION / Displays the elevation of a selected point.FRFIND/REPLACE / Find and replace.GPMODEL GROUP:CREATE GROUP; DETAIL GROUP:CREATE GROUP / Creates a group of elements.RTTAG ROOM; ROOM TAG / Tags the selected room.TGTAG BY CATEGORY / Applies tags to elements based on their categories.TXTEXT / Adds text.
Architecture CL COLUMN; STRUCTURAL COLUMN / Adds a vertical load-bearing element to the building model.CMPLACE A COMPONENT / Place a component.DRDOOR / Adds a door to the building model.GRGRID / Places column grid lines in the building design.LLLEVEL / Places a level in view.RMROOM / Creates a room bounded by model elements and separation lines.RPREFERENCE PLANE / Creates a reference plane using drawing tools.RTTAG ROOM; ROOM TAG / Tags the selected room.SBFLOOR:FLOOR: STRUCTURAL / Adds structural floors to a building model.WAWALL; WALL:WAL…

RETROFITTING TECHNIQUES OF RC FRAME BUILDINGS

Similar to masonry buildings various methodologies are available for analysis and retrofitting of RC frame building structures. The proposed retrofitting schemes are based on predicted behavior of this class of buildings which is based on observed behavior in the past earthquakes. However, these buildings could be brought to seismic safety level recommended by various Building Codes within economic limits. The economically viable option with less intervention would be more desirable though various other intervention options are available worldwide. The following are the major types of problems observed during earthquakes in RCC frame buildings: •absence of ties in beam column joints •inadequate confinement near beam column joint •inadequate lap length and anchorage and splice at inappropriate position •low concrete strength •improperly anchored ties (90o hooks) •inadequate lateral stiffness •inadequate lateral strength •irregularities in plan and elevation •irregular distribution of l…